It has sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties, and was used primarily for the treatment of insomnia.
used as an emergency treatment for seizures, and to cause you to fall asleep for surgery.
Barbiturates readily cross the placenta following oral or parenteral administration.
They are distributed throughout fetal tissues, the highest concentrations being found in the placenta, fetal liver, and brain.
Barbiturates are believed to act by depressing monosynaptic and polysynaptic transmission in the CNS. They also increase the threshold for electrical stimulation of the motor cortex.
Phenobarbital lowers serum bilirubin concentrations probably by induction of glucuronyl transferase, the enzyme which conjugates bilirubin.
Amobarbital, aprobarbital, butabarbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital, and secobarbital and amobarbital have been used for the short-term treatment of insomnia; however, they generally have been replaced by benzodiazepines.
If barbiturates are used, they are not recommended for long-term use since they appear to lose their effectiveness in sleep induction and maintenance after 2 weeks or less.
Sedative-hypnotic—Amobarbital; Aprobarbital; Butabarbital; Pentobarbital; Phenobarbital (parenteral only); Secobarbital;
Anticonvulsant—Amobarbital (parenteral only); Mephobarbital; Metharbital; Pentobarbital (parenteral only); Phenobarbital; Secobarbital (parenteral only);
Note: Bracketed information in the Indications section refers to uses that are not included in U.S. product labeling.
Anesthesia, adjunct—Amobarbital, butabarbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital (parenteral), and secobarbital are indicated for use as preoperative medication to help reduce anxiety and facilitate induction of anesthesia
Barbiturates have been shown to cause an increased incidence of fetal abnormalities.
Risk-benefit must be carefully considered when the medication is required in life-threatening situations or in serious diseases for which other medications cannot be used or are ineffective.
Barbiturates have been shown to cause an increased incidence of fetal abnormalities. Risk-benefit must be carefully considered when the medication is required in life-threatening situations or in serious diseases for which other medications cannot be used or are ineffective.